Microbiology of COVID-19: The Rise of the Mutants, Emergence of SARS-CoV-2 Variants as a Response to Evolutionary Pressures to Optimize Viral Transmissibility and Replication


  • Luis Jimenez, Yarah Abazah, Tae Min Kim, Brittany Cardona, Anna Maclejewska, Laila
  • Metwaly, Shakila Behzadi, Amy Kass Georges, Umar Sultan Kahloon, and Hadassah Haricha 
  • Biology and Horticulture Department, Bergen Community College, Paramus, New Jersey Send all correspondence to: 
  • Luis Jimenez, Biology and Horticulture Department, Bergen Community College, Paramus, New Jersey, Telephone: 201-446-7143, Email: [email protected]


The COVID-19 pandemic has presented major challenges to national public health systems and created serious socio-economics disruptions around the world. A zoonotic event that triggered the spillover of SARS-CoV-2 to human populations has not been decisively described. However, genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 infections provided rapid viral characterization, rapid diagnostic tests, effective vaccines, and epidemiological analysis of COVID-19. The original virus that emerged out of China has gone through several changes in the nucleic acid sequences of the spike glycoprotein which is the structure used to facilitate entry into human respiratory cells causing morbidity and mortality.

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